SMART MATERIALS IN MODERN ENGINEERING FIELDS
Posted by RASHID, 29 August 2012 · 512 views
Mechanical Civil Computer Mechanical civil computer Material Technilogy members Robotics Construction
APPICATION OF SMART MATERIALS IN MODERN ENGINEERING FIELDS
Structural Applications of Smart Materials in Construction Engineering Using Robotics
Abstract -Sensors and Actuators designs have mimicked nature to a large extent. Similar to our five senses - sight, sound, smell, taste and touch -correspondingly visual/optical, acoustic/ultrasonic, electrical, chemical and thermal/magnetic sensors have been developed. The response from these primary sensors is converted to electrical signals, which are transmitted to the brain (central processing unit) for further processing. In addition to the processing, the role of the processor is to make decision based on these inputs. This is currently done manually by an experienced operator who has an understanding of the sensing and processing technology. To aid the operator in making a more judicious decision, the conditioned signal has to be presented with as much pertinent information displayed in an arresting way. A further development would be to provide the virtual machine itself to make the judgment - smart sensor. The next stage in this would be for the processor to decide on the course of action and the actuation mechanism to respond accordingly. Virtual human robots can be equipped with sensors, memory, perception, and behavioural motor. This eventually makes these virtual human
robots to act or react to events. The design of a behavioural animation system raises questions about creating autonomous actors, endowing them with perception, selecting their actions, their motor control and making their behaviour believable and the behaviour should be spontaneous and unpredictable.
Keywords- smart materials, structures, smart sensors, actuators.
There is an increasing awareness of the benefits to be derived from the development and exploitation of smart materials and structures in applications ranging from hydrospace to aerospace. With the ability to respond autonomously to changes in their environment, smart systems can offer a simplified approach to the control of various material and system characteristics such as light transmission, viscosity, strain, noise and vibration etc. depending on the smart materials used . There are a number of materials that act as both sensors and actuators that can monitor and respond to their environment. However, with the ability to also modify their properties in response to an environmental change, they can be 'very smart' and, in effect, learn. While the scope of sensors and actuators is quite broad, three main sub-programs have been identified – Smart Structures and Materials, Miniature Sensor and Actuators and Automated Testing, Inspection Monitoring and Evaluation. These are exciting times for Sensors and Actuators with the maturing of the enabling technologies of Photonics and Electronics paving the way for inventive and innovative system designs. For the modelling of sensor behaviours, the ultimate objective is to build intelligent autonomous virtual humans with adaptation, perception and memory. These virtual humans should be able to act freely and emotionally. They should be conscious and unpredictable. The virtual humans are expected in the near future to represent computer the concepts of behaviour, intelligence, autonomy, adaptation, perception, memory, freedom, emotion, consciousness, and unpredictability. Behaviour for virtual humans may be defined as a manner of conducting themselves. It is also the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment.
Intelligence may be defined as the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations.
A. Mechatronic devices
The essential ingredients of any robotic system are sensors, computation and actuators. Appropriate choices of sensors and actuators can simplify a robotic system or may even be the difference between its success and failure. Mechatronic devices are the novel actuators including those based on shape memory alloy, electrorheological fluids, magnetic fluids and the piezoelectic effect as well as a wide range of sensors for measuring quantities of importance for robotic systems .
B. Robotic mechanisms
All of the sensors, actuators - and algorithms that are developed should be tested by incorporating them into a mobile robot platform, humanoid robot or fixed manipulator/ gripper system. An extensive experience of building legged, wheeled and tracked land vehicles, submersibles and flying robots as well as robotic grippers and complete humanoid robots are required.
II. VIRTUAL REALITY APPLICATION
Virtual human robots can be equipped with sensors, memory, perception, and behavioral motor. This eventually makes this to act or react to events. The design of a behavioral animation system raises questions about creating autonomous actors, endowing them with perception, selecting their actions, their motor control and making their behaviour believable and the behavior should be spontaneous and unpredictable. They should give an illusion of life, making the people believe that that they are really alive. A virtual human can be developed which include the basic components of a smart system embedded sensor(s), an information processing (software) system for data analysis, logic and decision making and system hardware (e.g., multiplexers, actuators
etc) interfaced to a computer for control, actuation and feedback .
III. SENSORS AND ACTUATORS
Development of the research and technology base in Sensors and Actuators requires a basic understanding of the principles and mechanics of the components. Programs identified within the Sensors and Actuators SRP, include
* Optical Sensors and Digital Imaging
* Smart Materials and Structures
* Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation
* Bio-chemical Sensors
* Other related programmes
Being a fairly broad discipline, the Sensors and Actuators SRP has common ground and overlap with most of the other SRP's. For example, with the MEMS programme, there is the development of optical sensors for characterization and reliability of MEMS devices. Similarly a suite of techniques is developed for NDT and stress management of electronic packaging systems. With the biomedical group, there is work on development of fiber optic biosensors for bacterial sensing and detection. While the research focus is on development of novel sensors and actuators, industrial support requires integrated system development as well. The Smart Structures and Materials program is a particular case in point of an integrated system incorporating sensors, processing and decision making capabilities and actuation. It can be defined as "a system or material which has built-in or intrinsic sensor(s), actuator(s), and control mechanism(s) whereby it is capable of sensing a stimulus, responding to it in a predetermined manner and extent, in a shortlappropriate time, and reverting to its original state as soon as the stimulus is removed". The term stimulus may include stress, strain, incident light, electric field, gas molecules, temperature, hydrostatic pressure etc. whereas, the response could be any of a number of possibilities, such as motion or change in optical properties, conductivity, surface tension,
dielectric, piezoelectric or pyroelectric properties, mechanical modulus or permeability . Although Japanese and American scientists have rather different views of smart/intelligent materials, they are generally regarded to be a group of materials that have varying degrees of sensing and actuating functions that can be incorporated into systems having feedback loops to constantly vary or "tune" one or more material property such as size, shape, color, structure or composition. Using sophisticated hardware (control devices e.g., actuators) and software these materials can be incorporated into what is described as a smart/intelligent system, that possesses a higher level of intelligence such as selfdiagnosis, self-repair, learning ability, ability to discriminate shapes and forms, ability to judge etc.
A. Optical Sensors and Digital Imaging
Optical components such as optical fibers, lasers and detectors are only recently being
developed fueled by the applications in the communications industry. Electronics and Optics have been competing technologies in sensor and actuator system over the years. Indeed, the evolution of electronics and optics has taken similar routes. Optical Sensors offer some advantages over electrical sensors, such as use of passive, dielectric and insulating components. No electrical power at the measurement point is required, thus no heat generation, electrical shorting and fire hazard problems. Remote non-contact sensing and whole-field visual display of the measure and rounds of the positive aspects of optical sensors. However, electrical sensors have a longer industrial history and thus components and devices for these sensors are readily available. Thus electrical sensors are more prevalent. The cost of these components is competitive and various off-the-shelf systems are becoming available. Optoelectronics has merged these two competing technologies, taking the best of each. Optics has the advantage in the primary sensing capabilities, while electronics is currently leading in the processing and actuating technologies. Thus this has a lot to offer in development of novel sensor processor- actuator systems .
B. Environmental Requirements
The sensor implanted humanoid has to survey the construction and, if possible, the whole life span of the structure. During the construction phases, the sensor is exposed to a hostile environment and has therefore to be rugged enough to protect the fibers from external agent. Chemical aggression has to be taken into account since concrete can be particularly aggressive because of its high alkalinity. These requirements are often contrasting with the ones of the previous point. To protect the fiber one tends to isolate if from the environment by using thicker or multiple layers of coating. This has the side effect to impede the strain transmission from the structure to the fiber. Finally, the sensor must be easy to use by humanoid and has to be installed rapidly without major disturbance to the building yard schedule respond to all these requirements. Humanoids may be embedded with all these requirements so that the sensors can either be embedded into concrete, installed on the surface of an existing structure or secured inside a borehole by grouting.
The current investigations on the fiber optics are
* Studying the feasibility of using a fiber optic sensor for measuring strain.
* Experimentally determining the sensibility of fiber optic soil strains sensors.
* Developing a fiber optic sensor, this can measure the visco elastic strain and permanent deformation of soil.
* Studying the effect of soil moisture content on the ability of the fiber optic sensor to measure soil strains.
The Disadvantages that counts includes,
* Sensors should be handled with care and Fibre optic sensors are still more expensive.
* Special skills are needed while installing the sensors.
With the advent of smart/intelligent materials and their applications on structures which are known as smart/intelligent structures result in value addition of structures in terms of operational, functional serviceability during their use as a structural member of a building or any other equipment, vehicle etc. This technique also helps in monitoring of structures during their service and indicates the defects, damages occur in their use in the form of cracks, delaminations, deformations etc. which is very useful in assessing the suitability and fitness of a structure in rendering further service for their remaining life. Though this technique is quite evidently gaining momentum in their applications in the field manufacturing, robotics, evidently gaining momentum in their applications in the fIeld manufacturing, robotics, materials but its use in civil engineering structures is yet to gain attention of the designers and constructors. As the construction cost of the civil engineering structures is escalating and also subjected to natural calamities like earthquakes, forces of wind, weathering etc. its structural fitness has to be established from time to time for its sustainable serviceability and structural adequacy by applying smart materials concepts -.
C. Ceramic-based Actuator Materials
It has been tacitly assumed to this point that all actuator materials behave similarly. In broad terms, some actuators are developed using piezoelectric materials whereas others exploit electrostrictive materials based on relaxor ferroelectrics. In addition, within the piezoelectric materials there is considerable variation in how each material responds to an applied voltage which is a reflection of both their composition and microstructure. Smart Materials represent an enabling technology that has applications across a wide range of sectors including construction, transportation, agriculture, food and packaging, healthcare, sport and leisure, white goods, energy and environment, space, and defence. Smart Materials are materials that sense their environment and respond. Research and Development projects to incorporate Humanoids in the following application areas include
* Modern Built-Environment
* Environmentally Friendly Transport
* Sustainable Production and Consumption
Smart Materials are materials that respond to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, moisture, pH, or electric and magnetic fields. For example, photochromic materials that change colour in response to light; shape memory alloys and polymers which change/recover their shape in response to heat and electro- and magnetorheological fluids that change viscosity in response to electric or magnetic stimuli. Smart Materials can be used directly to make smart systems or structures or embedded in structures whose inherent properties can be changed to meet high value-added performance needs. Smart Materials technology is relatively new to the economy and has a strong innovative content. According to work by the Materials Foresight Panel, the use of smart materials could make a significant impact in many market sectors. In the food industry, smart labels and tags could be used in the implementation of traceability protocols to improve food quality and safety e.g. using thermo chromic ink to monitor temperature history. In construction, smart materials and systems could be used in 'smart' buildings, for environmental control, security and structural health monitoring e.g. strain measurement in bridges using embedded fibre optic sensors. Magneto-rheological fluids have been used to damp cable-stayed bridges and reduce the effects of earthquakes. In aerospace, smart materials could find applications in 'smart wings', health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS), and active vibration control in helicopter blades. In marine and rail transport, possibilities include strain monitoring using embedded fibre optic sensors. Smart textiles are also finding applications in sportswear that could be developed for everyday wear and for health and safety purposes -.
A. Structural Health Monitoring
Virtual human robots can be equipped with sensors, memory, perception, and behavioral motor. This eventually makes these virtual human robots to act or react to events.
* Also called Damage Detection
* Using response signals to determine if there has been a change in the system's parameters.
* Mathematically very much like parameter identification in many respects
* Numerous methods have been proposed.
* Impact is high for SMH systems that work without taking the base system out of operation.
B. Smart Structures
Key areas of focus for the development of smart structures to include: Miniaturisation and integration of components, e.g. application of sensors or smart materials in components Robustness of the smart system, e.g.interfacial issues relating to external connections to smart structures Device fabrication and manufacturability, e.g. Electrorheological fluids in active suspension systems, applications in telematics and traffic management Structural health monitoring, control and lifetime extension (including self-repair) of structures operating in hostile environments, e.g. vibration control in Aerospace and Construction applications. Thermal management of high temperature turbines for power generation. Selfmonitoring, self-repairing, low maintenance structures, e.g. bridges and rail track Smart structures that can self-monitor internal stresses, strains, creep, corrosion and wear would deliver significant benefits.
Projects can be based on any material format (e.g. speciality polymers, fibres and textiles, coatings, adhesives, composites, metals, and inorganic materials), which incorporate sensors or active functional materials such as: piezoelectrics, photochromics, thermochromics, electro and magneto rheological fluids, shape memory alloys, aeroelastictailored and other auxetic materials. For the modelling of actor behaviors, the ultimate objective is to build intelligent autonomous virtual humans with
adaptation, perception and memory. These virtual humans should be able to act freely and emotionally. They should be conscious and unpredictable. But can we expect in the near future to represent in the computer the concepts of behavior, intelligence, autonomy, adaptation, perception, memory, freedom, emotion, consciousness, and unpredictability -.
C. Key Points
* This is the first successful trial in the worldto remotely control a man emulating robot soas to drive an industrial vehicle (backhoe) outdoors in lieu of a human operator.
* Furthermore, the robot's operation was controlled while having it wear protective clothing to protect it against the rain and dust outside. This too marks a world-first success demonstrating the robot's capability of performing outdoor work even in the rain.
* This has been achieved with an HRP- IS robot whose Honda R&D made hardware was provided with control software developed by the AIST.
* The robot has a promising application potential for restoration work in environments struck by catastrophes and in civil engineering and construction project sites where it can "work" safely and smoothly.
This robot was remotely controlled to perform outdoor work tasks normally carried out by human operators involving the operation (driving and excavation) of a vibrating industrial vehicle (backhoe) in the seated position. Furthermore, operation was
achieved with the robot wearing protective clothing to protect against rain and dust. This also marks a world first success indicating the robot's ability to carry out outdoor work tasks even in the rain. These results were achieved thanks to the development of the following three technologies:
* The "remote control technology" for instructing the humanoid robot to perform total body movements under remote control and the "remote control system" for executing the remote control tasks (KHI).
* The "protection technology" for protecting the humanoid robot against shock and vibrations of its operating seat and against the influences of the natural environment such as rain and dust (Tokyo Construction).
* The "full-body operation control technology" for controlling the humanoid robot's total body work movements with autonomous control capability to prevent the robot from falling. There have been many attempts until the present to robotize the industrial vehicles (including backhoes) themselves for work on sites requiring their operation
in dangerous work areas or in adverse environments. In contrast, the use of a humanoid robot to operate the industrial vehicle instead of a human operator has two distinct advantages:
* This means that robot does not only drive the vehicle but is also capable of executing the attendant work tasks (alighting from the vehicle to check the work site, carrying out simple repairs, etc.) and
* It permits the robotizing of all industrial vehicles without needing to modify them. Once humanoid robots (Fig. 5) now engaged in other types of work can be used, when necessary, for operational duties normally performed by human operators there will be a definite chance for a greater expansion of the humanoid robot market which in
turn holds promise of further reductions in their production and operating costs. The major insight gained from this success that has demonstrated the humanoid robot's ability to replace the human operator in operating (driving and excavation duties) commercially used industrial vehicles (backhoe) under remote control is the realization that humanoid robots are capable of moving in the same manner as humans. The humanoid robot's ability to carry out outdoor work tasks even in the rain by "wearing" protective clothing has widened the scope of the environmental conditions in which it is capable of executing work. From these two aspects there is every reason to expect that these results will make a substantial contribution toward the realization of practical work-performing humanoid robots. The development tasks ahead will include work to create wireless remote control and achieve a robot capable of boarding the industrial vehicle independently.
V. SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURE SYSTEM
The use of smart materials could make a significant impact in many market sectors. In the food industry, smart labels and tags could be used in the implementation of traceability protocols to improve food quality and safety e.g. using thermochromic ink to monitor temperature history. In construction, smart materials and systems could be used in 'smart' buildings, for environmental control, security and structural health monitoring e.g. strain measurement in bridges using embedded fibre optic sensors. Magneto-rheological fluids have been used to damp cable-stayed bridges and reduce the effects of
earthquakes. In aerospace, smart materials could find applications in 'smart wings', health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS), and active vibration control in helicopter blades. In marine and rail transport, possibilities include strain monitoring using embedded fibre optic sensors. Smart Structures, e.g. structures, with integrated sensors and actuator materials, which might eliminate the need for heavy mechanical actuation systems or damping systems through their functionality for shape change or vibration control. Self-monitoring, Control and Selfrepair, e.g. applications of functionally graded layers capable of a response tailored to their environment. This will involve use of sensor and actuator technologies for automatic control of conditions within buildings for comfort and energy savings, tagging for food packaging and for crime prevention application of sensors or smart materials in components Robustness of the smart system, e.g. interfacial issues relating to external connections to smart structures Device fabrication and manufacturability, e.g. electro-rheological fluids in active suspension systems, applications in telematics and traffic management Structural health monitoring, control and lifetime extension (including self-repair) of structures operating in hostile environments, e.g. vibration control in Aerospace and Construction applications. Projects can be based on any material format (e.g. speciality polymers, fibres and textiles, coatings, adhesives, composites, metals, and inorganic materials), which incorporate sensors or active functional materials such as: piezoelectrics, photochromics, thermochromics, electro and magneto rheological fluids, shape memory alloys, aeroelastictailored and other auxetic materials -[1 1]. The potential application areas of smart materials and structures are very widespread and include energy - conservation, expensive systems with high potential for operational savings, e.g. transportation systems
such as aircraft or automobiles, aerospace structures, civil infrastructure, structural health monitoring, intelligent highways, high-speed railways, active noise suppression, robotics. In order to increase the speed of the railway vehicle and reduce the energy consumption, the vehicle body needs to be designed as light as possible, for heavy bodies result in limitations in the operating speed and requires actuators of increased size and power, so the flexibility of the structure becomes an important issue. Besides railway vehicles, flexible structures are also considered important in many other areas such as road vehicles, robotics and especially aerospace structures. the use of smart materials to minimize vibrations via robust control. Thus the aim of the proposed research is to contribute to the improvement of the performance of a flexible body of railway vehicles through the use of humanoid enabled smart materials to minimize vibrations via robust control. In order to achieve the aim, the tasks of research may include the following
* Rigorous study of flexible-bodies and smart materials (feasibility study)
* Modeling of the flexible body controlled via smart materials. Model reduction will be considered to reduce the complexity of the model.
* Development of appropriate control strategies
* Demonstration, evaluation and validation The idea of incorporating humanoid enabled smart materials into flexible structures to achieve improved performance of the flexible structure with application to railway flexible bodies. The motivation for the proposed research is introduced and tasks that may be involved in this research.
A. Characteristics of Sensor for Strain measurement
Optical fibre sensing systems will be significantly less expensive than the conventional counterparts than the future, particularly those that are commercialized and produced in large quantities. Since a light signal rather than the electric current is carried, optical fibre sensors have very little loss and are immune to lighting damages. Mostly these sensors are based on the principle of white light interferometry. Some of the Fibre Optic Sensors are
SOFO displacement sensor
Bragg grating strain sensor
Micro bending displacement sensor
Fabry perot strain sensor
Raman distributed temperature sensor
B. Determination of Displacement by using SOFO Sensors
It is a fiber optic displacement sensor with a resolution in the micrometer range and has an excellent long-term stability. The measurement setup uses low-coherence interferometry to measure the length difference between two optical fibers installed on the structure to be monitored. The measurement fiber is pre tensioned and mechanically coupled to the structure at two anchorage points in order to follow its deformations, while the reference fiber is free and acts as temperature reference. Both fibers are installed inside the same pipe and the measurement basis can be chosen between 200mm and 10m.The resolution of the system is 2 micrometer independently from the measurement basis and its measurement basis and its precision is of 0.2% of 12 the measured deformation even over years of operation .The SOFO system has been successfully used to monitor more than 50 structures including bridges, tunnels, piles, dam, nuclear power plant etc. 
Sensors are playing a vital role in all sorts of sciences. Hence, instead of placing various sensors at variable places in various application areas, it may be better to embed these sensors in humanoids and it could be effectively used in detecting, monitoring, message
conveying, repairing etc., Thus the mobility of humanoids may be used effectively. A smart intelligent structure includes distributed actuators, sensors and microprocessors that analyze the response from the sensors and use distributed parameter control theory to command actuators, to apply localized strains. A smart structure has the capacity to respond to a changing external environment such as loads, temperatures and shape change, as well as to varying internal environment i.e., failure of a structure. This technology has numerous applications much as vibration and buckling control, ape control, damage assessment and active noise control. Smart structure techniques are being increasingly applied to civil engineering structures for health monitoring of buildings with strain and corrosion sensors.
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