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Brief analysis of automobile common materials

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There are many kinds of materials used to produce automobiles: iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, plastics, rubber, glass, ceramics and so on. According to statistics, in recent years, the weight composition ratio of the main materials of an ordinary car is approximately 65%-70%, 10%-15% of non-ferrous metals, and 20% of non-metallic materials.

Various new materials, such as light metal materials, composite materials, high-tech synthetic materials, are increasingly used in modern automobiles.

Metal materials have various properties. It has physical and chemical properties, mechanical properties and process properties.

Physical and chemical properties refer to the properties of metal materials under various physical conditions and the ability to resist the erosion of various chemical media. Density: mass per unit volume; thermal conductivity: the ability to conduct heat; electrical conductivity: the ability to conduct electric current; thermal expansion: the ability to increase volume when heated; melting point: the temperature when the solid state becomes liquid; magnetism: the magnetic conductivity of metallic materials is called magnetism; corrosion resistance: metal resists the occurrence of the surrounding medium at room temperature The ability of chemical reactions to be destroyed; oxidation resistance: the ability of metals to resist oxidation at high temperatures.

Mechanical performance refers to the resistance of metallic materials under various loads (external forces). It has the following indicators:

Impact toughness: the ability of metal materials to resist failure under impact loading is called impact toughness.

Fatigue strength: Fatigue cracks occur in metal materials under cyclic loading and lead to fracture called fatigue fracture; the maximum stress that does not produce fracture under repeated cyclic loading is called fatigue strength; the fatigue strength is measured by fatigue test; when the number of stress cycles of metal materials reaches 107, the parts are still Without breaking, the maximum stress at this time can be used as fatigue strength. For some high strength steels, the maximum stress at 108 cycles of stress is their fatigue strength.

Cutting performance: cutting performance refers to the difficulty of machining metal materials.

Heat treatment performance: heat treatment performance refers to the ability of metal materials to adapt to various heat treatment processes.

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